• Organic Chemistry

    Inductive Effect

    When a covalent bond is formed between atoms of different electronegativities, the electron density is towards the more electronegative atom of the bond. Such a shift of electron density results in a polar covalent bond. Bond polarity leads to various electronic effects in organic compounds. “The permanent dipole, induce in one bond by another, is called the inductive effect” Let us consider chloroethane (CH3CH2Cl) in which the C–Cl bond is a polar covalent bond. It is polarized so that the carbon-1 gains some positive charge (δ+) and the chlorine some negative charge (δ–). The fractional electronic charges on the two atoms in a polar covalent bond are denoted by symbol…